Diabetes mellitus (often referred to as diabetes) is a condition that occurs when blood sugar is not metabolized properly because the insulin hormone is not used properly. Onset diabetes can also occur because the body does not make enough insulin.

The insulin hormone is produced by the pancreas. The insulin hormone is then used to turn glucose into energy, which is used by the body as fuel. If for some reason this process does not work properly in the body, blood sugar becomes elevated (hyperglycemia) and this can cause the signs and symptoms of diabetes.

The most common signs and symptoms of hyperglycemia and diabetes are frequent urination, excessive thirst, unexplained exhaustion, extreme hunger, unexplained weight loss, irritability, vision problems; and pain, numbness or tingling in the feet or hands.


What is Adult Onset Diabetes?


Adult onset diabetes (also know as insulin resistant diabetes or type II diabetes), occurs because the body becomes resistant to the insulin hormone. This leads to increased blood sugar (hyperglycemia) because the insulin is not being used to convert glucose into energy.

Adult onset diabetes usually occurs in adulthood. However, it is typically referred to as type II diabetes now because children and youth are being diagnosed with this condition much more frequently. The most common reasons for type II diabetes in children are childhood obesity and nutrition related issues.

Obesity and poor diet are the primary causes of adult onset diabetes. Other risk factors include family history, Hispanic or African American ethnicity, little physical activity, older than 65, taking immunosuppressant’s, and being overweight. People with a past medical history of the Hepatitis C virus or gestational diabetes are also at higher risk for developing type II diabetes.

According to the National Kidney Foundation (NFK), approximately 17 million people in the United States have diabetes and many of these people have yet to be diagnosed. The NFK states, “Each year about 798,000 people are diagnosed with diabetes. In addition, about 123,000 children and teenagers age 19 and younger have diabetes.”


What is Juvenile Onset Diabetes?


Juvenile onset diabetes (also known as insulin dependent diabetes or type I diabetes), occurs when the pancreas does not produce enough of the insulin hormone to metabolize blood sugar properly. Juvenile onset diabetes is typically diagnosed in youth, however; it is also diagnosed in adulthood from time to time.

Type I diabetes is treated with insulin injections several times per day or with the use of an insulin pump.


What is New Onset Diabetes?


New onset diabetes is a condition that occurs in people who have had a kidney transplant. New onset diabetes is a type II diabetes mellitus condition.

People who have had kidney transplants are not necessarily at higher risk of developing diabetes. However, transplant patients are usually on anti-rejection medications initially, which can slightly increase risk. Since the transplant patient is generally living with just one kidney, it is extremely important to get screened for diabetes regularly.

Untreated diabetes is extremely damaging to the kidneys because they have to work extremely hard to remove all the excess sugar from the blood. Since the transplant patient only has one kidney, it is imperative to catch new onset diabetes immediately and get it treated and under control as soon as possible.

Untreated diabetes is extremely detrimental to the undiagnosed patient. If you suspect juvenile onset, adult onset, or new onset diabetes, contact your physician to discuss signs and symptoms and schedule a screening immediately. People with diabetes can live long and healthy lives by following physician recommendations and controlling the condition.