Diabetic pathophysiology occurs when the body is unable to utilize the insulin hormone or is unable to produce insulin. This affects the body’s ability to metabolize blood sugar. There are two different types of diabetes mellitus that have similar diabetic pathophysiology.

Type 1 diabetes mellitus (also known as juvenile onset or insulin dependant diabetes) occurs because the pancreas cannot produce a sufficient amount of insulin. Without the insulin hormone, the muscle and fat cells cannot properly absorb blood sugar to burn as energy.

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (also called adult onset, insulin resistant, or non-insulin dependant diabetes) occurs when the body becomes resistant to the insulin hormone. Insulin resistance prevents the cells from absorbing blood sugar properly, even though the body makes the insulin.

It is important to recognize the signs and symptoms of diabetes mellitus. The most common symptoms include excessive thirst, frequent urination, extreme hunger, sleepiness, excessive sweating; and fruity smelling breath, urine and sweat.

There are several things diabetics need to do to control diabetes mellitus. Your doctor will give you a plan that will include regular exercise, diet modifications, maintaining a food journal, frequent blood sugar monitoring, and maintaining a blood sugar log. Treatment can also include use of an insulin pump or insulin injections, oral medications, and occasionally bariatric surgery for obese patients.


Diabetic Ketoacidosis Pathophysiology


Diabetic ketoacidosis is a condition that occurs when the body starts using its own cells as fuel. This causes blood sugar levels to get to high and ketones begin spilling into the insulin to rid the body of excess blood sugar. This condition is extremely dangerous and can cause death if untreated.

Diabetic ketoacidosis typically requires hospitalization for treatment. Treatment will include extensive testing for an accurate diagnosis, IV fluids to combat dehydration and balance electrolytes, and insulin to properly metabolize blood sugar.


Diabetic Neuropathy Pathophysiology


Diabetic neuropathy is a chronic condition that affects the nervous system in patients who are unable to control their blood sugar sufficiently. This condition can be extremely debilitating. If diabetic neuropathy goes untreated it can result in severe problems with the hands and feet. It can even lead to amputation and death.

Controlling blood sugar levels is extremely important to preventing diabetic neuropathy. If you suffer from diabetes that is not well controlled, talk with your physician about alternative or additional treatments.


Diabetic Retinopathy Pathophysiology


Diabetic retinopathy is a condition that affects the eyes. This condition typically occurs in patients with poorly controlled diabetes. Diabetic retinopathy can lead to several different eye problems including cataracts and blindness.

People with diabetes need to pay attention to any changes in vision. It is extremely important to have your eyes checked regularly to determine whether your diabetes is negatively affecting your vision. The best way to maintain good vision with diabetes is to be sure blood sugar levels are staying within normal limits.

With any of these conditions, the best way to maintain health with diabetes is to control blood sugar and follow your treatment plan. If you are unable to control your diabetes well, consult your physician to discuss alternative treatment options. It would also be beneficial to ask for a referral to a specialist.


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